The community may have taken its name from a French family name Chibon or Chiban, from a place name Conches, an abbey in Normandy named for the shellfish conch found in the area, or from the shape of the peninsula, which resembles a conche shell.
In 1702, Conche was the scene of an encounter by French and British warships. As a result three vessels were sunk and can be seen today on the harbour floor. From 1713 to 1904, Conche came under the French Shore boundary and was a major site for the French Fishery.
It is believed that James Hubert Drover was the first English settler. The first census was taken in 1857 and showed 101 settlers. During this time, there were many disputes between the English and the French. In the late 1800s, the salmon fishery became important to the town but after 1900, this fishery declined and the economy became based on the salt cod fishery. Between 1920 and 1930 a salmon cannery and cod oil refinery operated in Conche.
The community was incorporated as a town in 1960. In the 1970s, the salt fish plant was converted to a frozen processing plant